Sources and Further Reading

Primary Sources:

Christiansburg Institute Collection. Portions of the collection are currently held in Special Collections, Newman Library Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Christiansburg Institute Alumni Association Collection. Portions of the collection are currently held in Special Collections, Newman Library Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Friends' Freedmen's Association Records, Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College.

Harrison, Charles H. The Story of a Consecrated Life: Commemorative of Rev. Charles S. Schaeffer, Brevet-Captain U.S.V. (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1900). Although a biography, it reproduces excerpts from Shaeffer's unpublished diaries and other primary sources.

Historical Photographs Collection, Special Collections, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Long, Edgar A. Edgar A. Long Papers. Christiansburg Institute Collection. Portions of the collection are currently held in Special Collections, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Marshall, Charles L. "The Evolution of a Shoemaker." Tuskegee & Its People: Their Ideals & Achievements. Edited by Booker T. Washington [and Emmett J. Scott]. New York: D. Appleton, 1905.

Washington, Booker T. The Booker T. Washington Papers. 14 vols. Louis Harlan, editor. Urbanna: Univ. of Illinois Press, 1972-1989. Electronic edition in History Cooperative, http://www.historycooperative.org/btw/index.html. Electronic editions of several of Washington's books are also available in "Documenting the American South," University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, http://docsouth.unc.edu/.

----------. Up From Slavery. Introduction by Louis Harlan. New York: Penguin Books, 1986.

----------. The Story of My Life and Work: An Autobiography. Atlanta: J. L. Nichols & Co., 1901.


Secondary Sources:

Adeleke, Tunde, editor. Booker T. Washington: Interpretive Essays. Lewiston, NY: E. Mellen Press, 1998.

Anderson, James D. The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860-1935. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Ceceski, David S. Along Freedom Road: Hyde County, North Carolina and the Fate of Black Schools in the South. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1994.

Fariello, Anna. "On a Shallow Foundation of Freedom: Building the Campus of the Christiansburg Institute," Smithfield Review 2002 (volume VI): 38-70.

Harlan, Louis R. Booker T. Washington: The Making of a Black Leader, 1856-1901. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1972.

Heinemann, Ronald L. Harry Byrd of Virginia. Charlottesville: Univ. Press of Virginia, 1996.

----------. Booker T. Washington: The Wizard of Tuskegee, 1901-1915. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1983.

----------. Separate and Unequal; Public School Campaigns and Racism in the Southern Seaboard States, 1901-1915. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1958.

Horst, Samuel L. Education for manhood : the Education of Blacks in Virginia during the Civil War. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1987.

Kluger, Richard. Simple Justice: The History of Brown v. Board of Education and Black America's Struggle for Equality. New York: Vintage Books, 1975.

Leloudis, James L. Schooling the New South: Pedagogy, Self, and Society in North Carolina, 1880-1920. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Link, William A. A Hard Country and a Lonely Place: Schooling, Society, and Reform in Rural Virginia, 1870-1920. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1986.

Meier, August. Negro Thought in America, 1880-1915: Racial Ideologies in the Age of Booker T. Washington (Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 1963.

Murrell, Amy E. "The 'Impossible' Prince Edward County Case: The Endurance of Resistance in a Southside County, 1959-1964." The Moderates' Dilemma: Massive Resistance to School Desegregation in Virginia edited by Matthew Lassiter and Andrew Lewis. Charlottesville: Univ. Press of Virginia, 1998.

National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination Forms for Edgar A. Long Building (Christiansburg Industrial Institute) and for Christiansburg Institute [Hill School].

Pratt, Robert A. The Color of Their Skin: Education and Race in Richmond, Virginia, 1954-1989. Charlottesville: Univ. Press of Virginia, 1992.

Orfield, Gary. The Reconstruction of Southern Education: The Schools and the 1964 Civil Rights Act. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1969.

Richardson, Archie. The Development of Negro Education in Virginia, 1831-1970. Richmond : Richmond Virginia Chapter, Phi Delta Kappa, 1976.

Smith, James W., and Amanda E. DeHart. Christianburg Institute: A Proud Heritage. Petersburg, Va.: Westar Pub. Co., 1991.

Smith, Robert C. They Closed Their Schools: Prince Edward County, Virginia. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1965.

Swain, Ann. "Christiansburg Institute: From Freedmen's Bureau Enterprise to Public High School." M.A. Thesis. Radford College, 1975.

Wiencek, Henry. The Hairstons: An American Family in Black and White. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999.

Wilkinson, J. Harvie III. Harry Byrd and the Changing Face of Virginia Politics, 1945-1966. Charlottesville: Univ. Press of Virginia, 1968.

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